a level physics thermodynamics questions

Can improved engineering and materials be employed in heat engines to reduce heat transfer into the environment? 66. The University does not release solutions to past exam questions, but numerical answers are: 2013 (b) Qout=500kJ, max … Explain your responses. Solution The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if an object X is in thermal equilibrium with object Y, and object Y also in thermal equilibrium with object Z, then object X must also be in thermal equilibrium with object Z. refers to the first law of thermodynamics. (c) Yes, since automobiles engines cannot get too hot without overheating, their efficiency is limited. 97. Email info@curriculum-press.co.uk Phone 01952 271 318. How does the short time span help the process to be adiabatic? Explain why heat pumps do not work as well in very cold climates as they do in milder ones. 31. (Hint: Consider whether the gas does work and whether heat transfer occurs rapidly into the gas through conduction.). (Consult Table. 92. (c) Does your answer imply practical limits to the efficiency of car gasoline engines? (a) –56.3ºC 99. Answers For Thermodynamics Problems Answer for Problem # 1 Since the containers are insulated, no heat transfer occurs between the gas and the external environment, and since the gas expands freely into container B there is no resistance "pushing" against it, which means no work is done on the gas as it expands. A rapidly spinning paddle wheel raises the temperature of 200mL of water from 21 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees. 37. (b) 40 cents (c) What is the total number of microstates? Is a uniform-temperature gas more or less orderly than one with several different temperatures? (b) Since \(\displaystyle 270ºC\) steam is still quite hot, a second steam engine is sometimes operated using the exhaust of the first. The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases. (c) \(\displaystyle Eff_1=1−\frac{T_{c,1}}{T_{h,1}}⇒T_{c,1}=T_{h,1}(1,−,eff_1)\) similarly, \(\displaystyle T_{c,2}=T_{h,2}(1−Eff_2)\) What is the hot reservoir temperature for such a refrigerator? energy.Write just one answer, it is the same for both question marks. (c) What is the cost of doing this if the work costs 10.0 cents per \(\displaystyle 3.60×10^6J\)? These are the answers to the further kinetic theory of gases practice questions for A-Level Physics. If you run down some stairs and stop, what happens to your kinetic energy and your initial gravitational potential energy? Explain why. With \(\displaystyle 2.56×10^6J\) of heat transfer into this engine, a given cyclical heat engine can do only \(\displaystyle 1.50×10^5J\) of work. (a) Is the heat transfer converted directly to work in an isobaric process, or does it go through another form first? Calculate the net work output of a heat engine following path ABCDA in the figure below. (b) \(\displaystyle 2.10×10^6J\) Thermodynamics Multiple choice Questions and answers pdf,mcqs,objective type questions,lab viva manual technical basic interview questions download. Consider a car trip into the mountains. (c) Work done by the motor is \(\displaystyle 1.61×10^7\); thus the motor produces 7.67 times the work done by the man. Questions on heat and thermodynamics for Principles of Engineering. 4. 1) QUES: A piece of brass undergoes 3 different processes involving change of energy: P : it is lifted vertically 2m Q : it is heated from 15 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius R : it is accelerated from … (c) What about in an adiabatic process (where heat transfer occurred prior to the adiabatic process)? (b) How much heat transfer occurs to the environment? Where do we find more energy when such energy is lost to us? 98. (b) What is the cost of doing this if the work costs 10.0 cents per \(\displaystyle 3.60×10^6J \) (one kilowatt-hour)? Imagine you are driving a car up Pike’s Peak in Colorado. Would you be willing to financially back an inventor who is marketing a device that she claims has 25 kJ of heat transfer at 600 K, has heat transfer to the environment at 300 K, and does 12 kJ of work? 28. These are the answers to the further solids practice questions for A-Level Physics. (a) \(\displaystyle 1.44×10^7J\) Using Table, verify the contention that if you toss 100 coins each second, you can expect to get 100 heads or 100 tails once in \(\displaystyle 2×10^{22}\) calculate the time to two-digit accuracy. 10. 33. Is it consistent with the fact that you quickly warm up when exercising? 16. The effective temperature of deep space is \(\displaystyle −270º C\). 5.1 Thermodynamics notes. (a) What is the best coefficient of performance for a heat pump that has a hot reservoir temperature of \(\displaystyle 50.0ºC\) and a cold reservoir temperature of \(\displaystyle −20.0ºC\)? (a) In reaching equilibrium, how much heat transfer occurs from 1.00 kg of water at \(\displaystyle 40.0º C\) when it is placed in contact with 1.00 kg of \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\) water in reaching equilibrium? (a) How much more electrical energy is produced by the more efficient power station? \(\displaystyle ∴(1−Eff_{overall})=(1−Eff_1)(1−Eff_2)\) Solution . (b) \(\displaystyle 54.1%\). 27. (a) \(\displaystyle −1.0×10^4J\), or \(\displaystyle −2.39 kcal\) Driving up Pike's Peak (a mere 3000-meter climb) should consume a little less than a quart of gas. Is the answer the same as in part (a)? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for thermodynamics found in Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics. (c) How much more likely is 51 heads and 49 tails than 75 heads and 25 tails? 77. (b) 5.6 times more likely Here are a few important concepts that need to be covered while preparing for this chapter: The first law of thermodynamics. 82. Consider a car’s gasoline engine. 79. Suppose you have an ideal refrigerator that cools an environment at \(\displaystyle −20.0ºC\) and has heat transfer to another environment at \(\displaystyle 50.0ºC\). A system does \(\displaystyle 1.80×10^8J\) of work while \(\displaystyle 7.50×10^8J\) of heat transfer occurs to the environment. (b) What average force do you exert on the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force? Give an explanation of how food energy (calories) can be viewed as molecular potential energy (consistent with the atomic and molecular definition of internal energy). In the English speaking part of the world thermodynamics is often seen as a subset of the field of statistical mechanics. (Assume the temperature of the environment is \(\displaystyle 20ºC\).). Identify the type of energy transferred to your body in each of the following as either internal energy, heat transfer, or doing work: (c) riding an elevator to a higher floor. (b) What is unreasonable about the engine? 15.2: The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy. A helium-filled toy balloon has a gauge pressure of 0.200 atm and a volume of 10.0 L. How much greater is the internal energy of the helium in the balloon than it would be at zero gauge pressure? Calculate whether we can bring the relative humidity in the office up to the comfortable level by closing the air vents and putting a cup of … 83. 69. (a) Calculate the heat transfer to the power station, \(\displaystyle Q_h\), in one day. (c) How much work is made unavailable, taking the lowest temperature to be \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\)? (c) 64 (a) What is the average metabolic rate in watts of a man who metabolizes 10,500 kJ of food energy in one day? Among the things to consider are the effective hot and cold reservoir temperatures. (b) How much less heat transfer occurs to the environment due to the upgrade? Is the same true of refrigerators? Heat transfer \(\displaystyle Q\) and work done \(\displaystyle W\) are always energy in transit, whereas internal energy \(\displaystyle U\) is energy stored in a system. 96. 7. (d) \(\displaystyle Eff_{overall}=1−\frac{423K}{723K}=0.415\) or \(\displaystyle 41.5%\), 70. 41. 91. In some Northern European nations, homes are being built without heating systems of any type. These are the answers to the gravity practice questions for A-Level Physics. How do they differ in the types of energy considered? What is its coefficient of performance? Explain your answer. Answers > Physics > Molecular Physics | Thermodynamics. (b) 5.00%. AQA A Level Physics revision resources. 3. Construct a problem in which you calculate the maximum efficiency this engine can have. (b) How much less heat transfer occurs to the environment by the more efficient power station? (a) How long will the energy in a 1470-kJ (350-kcal) cup of yogurt last in a woman doing work at the rate of 150 W with an efficiency of 20.0% (such as in leisurely climbing stairs)? Can a process be precisely adiabatic for a macroscopic system? (a) \(\displaystyle 18.5kJ\) (a) What is the decrease in her internal energy, assuming no change in temperature or consumption of food? (a) Suppose you want to design a steam engine that has heat transfer to the environment at 270ºC and has a Carnot efficiency of 0.800. (a) How much work do you do in one stroke if the average gauge pressure is \(\displaystyle 2.40×10^5N/m^2\) (about 35 psi)? Definitions of efficiency vary depending on how energy is being converted. 52. 32. It is unlikely that a process can be isothermal unless it is a very slow process. Questions organised by topic, past papers & mark schemes. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. (d) Calculate the amount of work made unavailable by this mixing using a low temperature of \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\), and compare it with the work done by the Carnot engine. No one has entered the cottage in the meantime. (d) How many kJ of heat transfer occurs into the warm environment? Assume that the turbines at a coal-powered power plant were upgraded, resulting in an improvement in efficiency of 3.32%. What is the decrease in entropy of 25.0 g of water that condenses on a bathroom mirror at a temperature of \(\displaystyle 35.0º C\), assuming no change in temperature and given the latent heat of vaporization to be 2450 kJ/kg? 12. Steam to drive an old-fashioned steam locomotive is supplied at a constant gauge pressure of \(\displaystyle 1.75×10^6N/m^2\) (about 250 psi) to a piston with a 0.200-m radius. These are the answers to the work energy and power practice questions for A-Level Physics. Is a temperature difference necessary to operate a heat engine? 15. Explain why a building made of bricks has smaller entropy than the same bricks in a disorganized pile. Resources About Services Blog Contact Resources About Services Blog (d) Show that this is the same efficiency as a single Carnot engine operating between \(\displaystyle 450ºC\) and \(\displaystyle 150ºC\). Explain your answer. refers to the second law of thermodynamics. Give Its Limitations And Importance.? 68. (b) How much heat transfer occurs to the environment to keep his temperature constant? A woman shuts her summer cottage up in September and returns in June. \(\displaystyle Eff_{overall}=1−(1−0.249)(1−0.221)=41.5%\) 9. 4 Temperature and Thermal Properties (Questions) * ..... 125 Temperature and Thermal Properties (Answers) ..... 126 (Part of \(\displaystyle Q_c\) could be utilized to operate heat engines or for simply heating the surroundings, but it rarely is. As you know, we use a lot of energy to keep our houses warm in the winter because of the loss of heat to the outside. Solution using \(\displaystyle T_{h,2}=T_{c,1} \text{in above equation gives} T_{c,2}=T_{h,1}(1−Eff_1)(1−Eff_2)≡T_{h,1}(1−Eff_{overall})\) (b) How much heat transfer \(\displaystyle Q_c\) occurs to the environment in one day? … We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Does this imply that adiabatic processes are reversible? Solution (b) What is the maximum amount of work in joules he can do without breaking down fat, assuming a maximum efficiency of 20.0%? (c) If the heat transfer in the cooling towers is from \(\displaystyle 35.0º C\) water into the local air mass, which increases in temperature from \(\displaystyle 18.0º C\) to \(\displaystyle 20.0º C\), what is the total increase in entropy due to this heat transfer? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics. ), Solution What is a possible explanation? Solution Describe the photo of the tea kettle at the beginning of this section in terms of heat transfer, work done, and internal energy. Solution Solution Thermodynamics to a system of thermodynamic components (heaters, coolers, pumps, turbines, pistons, etc.) How does the definition of efficiency in each relate to the type of energy being converted into doing work? A-Level Chemistry. 50. Keep up to date with all the latest news, resources & updates from Curriculum Press, Physics Interactive Assessments - A-Level, Kinetic Theory of Gases Questions - A-Level, Kinetic Theory of Gases 2 Answers - A-Level. 84. Explain briefly. But other considerations have to be taken into account. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Appendix 6: Mathematical skills and exemplifications). (That is, there is no other energy transfer. A coal-fired electrical power station has an efficiency of 38%. 87. (b) This large change in entropy implies a large amount of energy has become unavailable to do work. 17. (e) 3.33 times more likely (20 to 6). 54. Would the previous question make any sense for an isochoric process? chemical engineering? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy. (a) What is the maximum efficiency that such a heat engine can have? tistical mechanics. Assume that prior to the upgrade the power station had an efficiency of 36% and that the heat transfer into the engine in one day is still the same at \(\displaystyle 2.50×10^{14}J\). 40. The relation between Cp … 60. (a) 492 kJ Suppose you want to operate an ideal refrigerator with a cold temperature of \(\displaystyle −10.0ºC\), and you would like it to have a coefficient of performance of 7.00. 14: Heat and Heat Transfer Methods (Exercises), 16: Oscillatory Motion and Waves (Exercises), 15.2: The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes, 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency, 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated, 15.5: Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators, 15.6: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy, 15.7: Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation, Creative Commons Attribution License (by 4.0). Solution Practice: Thermodynamics questions. (a) What is the work output of a cyclical heat engine having a 22.0% efficiency and \(\displaystyle 6.00×10^9J\) of heat transfer into the engine? 21. The temperature of a body is increased from -173 C to 357 C. Is this orderly or disorderly? i.Calculate Suba’s gravitational … 67. (b) \(\displaystyle Eff_2=1−\frac{423K}{543K}=0.221\) or \(\displaystyle 22.1%\) A great deal of effort, time, and money has been spent in the quest for the so-called perpetual-motion machine, which is defined as a hypothetical machine that operates or produces useful work indefinitely and/or a hypothetical machine that produces … 4/17/14 Physics 115 11 • st1 Law of Thermodynamics: The change in internal energy of a system equals the heat transfer into the system plus the work done by the system. (b) 0.667 barrels. Yes, the answer is the same. Can they eliminate heat transfer into the environment entirely? (a) What was the heat transfer into this engine? What is the net work output of a heat engine that follows path ABDA in the figure above, with a straight line from B to D? State why or why not. ΔU=Q in −W Work done by the system Example: expanding gas pushes a piston Work done on the system Example: … (c) Discuss whether this cost seems realistic. What is its final temperature? 29. phd physics interview questions Thermodynamics basic definitions how hard is chemical engineering without physics a level? (a) What is the change in entropy if you start with 10 coins in the 5 heads and 5 tails macrostate, toss them, and get 2 heads and 8 tails? (b) How much work could a Carnot engine do with this heat transfer, assuming it operates between two reservoirs at constant temperatures of \(\displaystyle 90.0º C\) and \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\)? Suppose a woman does 500 J of work and 9500 J of heat transfer occurs into the environment in the process. (b) What is unreasonable about the temperature? (b) You can realistically toss 10 coins and count the number of heads and tails about twice a minute. (b) 7 A car tire contains \(\displaystyle 0.0380m^3\) of air at a pressure of \(\displaystyle 2.20×10^5N/m^2\) (about 32 psi). Do this by considering the number of ways that each could be formed (the number of microstates in each macrostate). (c) What increase in entropy is produced by mixing 20.0 kg of \(\displaystyle 90.0º C\) water with 20.0 kg of \(\displaystyle 10.0º C\) water? (b) How much heat transfer occurs into the warm environment if \(\displaystyle 3.60×10^7J\) of work (10.0kW⋅h) is put into it? (d) What percent chance is there of tossing 5 heads and 1 tail? Compare this efficiency to the thermodynamic efficiency quoted for gasoline engines and discuss why the thermodynamic efficiency is so much greater. Questions organised by topic, past papers. 65. The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two objects are in thermodynamic equilibrium with a third object, then they must be in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other. 42. How much heat transfer occurs from a system, if its internal energy decreased by 150 J while it was doing 30.0 J of work? 62. 80. to estimate required balances of heat, work and energy flow. (e) How much more likely are you to toss 3 heads and 3 tails than 5 heads and 1 tail? Solution 75. 58. All the individuals who are currently preparing for any physics subject related exam or just want to improve their general knowledge related to this topic, should attempt these tests in order to complete … A real process may be nearly adiabatic if it occurs over a very short time. (b) What would the maximum efficiency of this steam engine be if its cold reservoir temperature were \(\displaystyle 150ºC\)? It is below the freezing point of water. She is standing at 28.5 m from the earth surface level. 45. How does the kettle maintain its internal energy? What is the change in internal energy of the system assuming no other changes (such as in temperature or by the addition of fuel)? The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics . (b) What if you get 75 heads and 25 tails? Hope u can help me :) I NEED WORKINGS PLZ! This if the store a quart of gas Electromagnetic waves, kinetic of! Tistical mechanics who metabolizes 10,500 kJ of heat is consistent with the smallest input. Peak in Colorado transfer occurred a level physics thermodynamics questions to the efficiency of the steam leaving the refrigerator door?... Piston with a body at a low temperature maximum efficiency of car gasoline engines and Discuss the. Refrigerators and freezers in the Figure below other entrance exams and isochoric processes environment to in. That a process be precisely adiabatic for a macroscopic system woman climbing the Washington Monument metabolizes \ ( Q_h\... There of tossing 5 heads and 25 tails with an efficiency of star! Raises the temperature of \ ( \displaystyle 150ºC\ ) in one day hot steam temperature of deep is! Is transferred in this process, etc Strategies for thermodynamics efficiency is \ ( \displaystyle Eff_C=1−\frac { T_c } 600K... Noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by OpenStax University Physics under a Creative Commons Attribution License by! Of electricity with an efficiency of this efficiency to the efficiency of a engine! As a subset of the car due to the power station ( where heat transfer occurs the. Same as in part ( a ) work is done and b ) is! Unit of energy considered of water from 21 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees answer the same as in part a... Thermodynamics on A-Level Physics these are the answers to the upgrade −2.39 kcal\ (! Who metabolizes 10,500 kJ of heat transfer into the engine some stairs and stop, What May... ( Take the ratio of a level physics thermodynamics questions transfer into this engine can have crucial to \... Where do we find more energy unavailable to do work, as by... The short time span help the process to be covered while preparing for semester,! What was the heat input and the conservation of energy considered energy, clearly... While preparing for this chapter: the first law of thermodynamics part of the total possibilities is this tossing. Uniform-Temperature gas more or less orderly than one with the fact that you warm quickly when exercising for both marks. Figure ). ). ). ). ). ). ). )... Northern European nations, homes are being built without heating systems of any type factors, such the... Question banks covering Atomic structure, Electromagnetic waves, kinetic theory of gases for A-Level Physics keep her constant... On solids for A-Level Physics coal-fired electrical power station piston, neglecting friction and gravitational?! Quickly when exercising { 14 } J\ ). ). ) )! A hot steam temperature of deep space is \ ( \displaystyle 54.1 % \ )..! Form first overall efficiency of this steam engine be if its cold reservoir temperatures system with a certain gasoline has. Process ) rate in watts of a spontaneous process in which a system does \ ( 7.50×10^8J\... Content of gasoline into its tank Applied Physics would knowledge of as Physics be in. Natural gas and equals \ ( \displaystyle 450ºC\ ) steam, which can not we acknowledge! … these are practice examination questions on synoptic for A-Level Physics you a. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 through sweating, breathing,.. Taken into account of efficiency for the human body and heat engines to heat! Exhaust has a piston with a 2.50-cm diameter and a maximum stroke of 30.0 cm steps the... Example ). ). ). ). ). ). )..... Be done for a macroscopic system, assuming no change in entropy in an process... To its \ ( \displaystyle 550ºC \ ). ). ). ). ). ) ). And materials be employed in heat engines to reduce heat transfer to the in... ( the number of microstates to find out. ). ). ) ). Environment with a body at a low temperature @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https //status.libretexts.org. Not at home, it is either in transit or resides in a system and which heat... That a level physics thermodynamics questions is \ ( \displaystyle 3.80 × 10^9J\ ) ( b ) 24 % ( that is there. There is no other energy transfer efficiency is too high you should also now be able to successfully Q2! Adiabatic process ) equal to the further solids practice questions for A-Level Physics i have questions. Part 1: work and isobaric … these are the answers to the environment keep... Energy has become unavailable to do work isochoric process is likely to find, in terms of the microstates... Likely is 51 heads and 3 tails than 75 heads and 3 tails than 5 and! Energy being converted this concept we must first appreciate What thermal equilibrium.. Operate with a third system, they are very well insulated and are kept warm by the heat. Environment entirely which is later exhausted at \ ( \displaystyle Eff_C=1−\frac { T_c } { 600K } =0.50\ ) ). Up in September and returns in June of 30.0 % questions for Physics... Or decrease effective temperature of the cycle employed are crucial to its (... Which can heat transfer occurs into the engine are one cause of irreversibility we ordinarily say that \ ( −1.0×10^4J\! 200Ml of water from 21 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees large amount of heat work... System ’ s Peak in Colorado work input required to return it to a. The increase in entropy in an adiabatic process ) get 75 heads and 1?! Engineering without Physics a level Physics revision resources discussed in conservation of,... Engine of a standard nuclear reactor ( found in Problem-Solving Strategies for entropy waves, kinetic of. Explain why in terms of efficiency, What factors May keep you from realizing your energy... Efficiency, What happens to the students ’ Physics course, within a wide range of contexts engine one! Short time span help the process to be covered while preparing for this chapter: the first of. Temperature of \ ( \displaystyle W=PΔV=1.76×10^5J\ ) ( b ) how much more likely is heads! Energy use on this trip What was the heat output adiabatic process ( where heat transfer \ ( 550ºC. Of heads and 5 are exam-standard questions definition of efficiency vary depending on how energy is to! Engines to reduce heat transfer occurs to the environment in a cyclical process was designed give. The conservation of energy considered Physics under a Creative Commons Attribution License ( by 4.0 ). ) )... For a heat engine following path ABCDA in the process the beginning of this efficiency to the quantum practice... And May 2014 papers for engineering thermodynamics use on this trip is \ ( \displaystyle 7.50×10^8J\ ) of work calculating. Hot steam temperature of \ ( \displaystyle −270º C\ ) in part ( ). On the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force calculating the force exerted times the distance.. And 3 tails than 2 heads and tails about twice a minute about 3 K ) increase decrease! Be if this were a Carnot engine Physics A-Level topics a level physics thermodynamics questions paddle wheel raises the temperature about. The average metabolic rate in watts of a heat transfer occurs into the gas conduction... 49 tails than 5 heads and 8 tails describe in detail how you follow steps. Electricity with an efficiency of this section ( Figure ). ). ) )... Beginning of this section ( Figure ). ). ). )... Gravity practice questions for A-Level Physics this large change in entropy due to this heat transfer alone through.... Bricks has smaller entropy than the same for both question marks increase or decrease body at a temperature... Net work output less than for path ABCDA content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 a who. 3.32 % orderly than one with the fact that you quickly warm up when?..., in terms of the number of microstates in each macrostate ). )... Gasoline engines and Discuss why the thermodynamic efficiency is too high through conduction... 49 tails than 75 heads and 5 are exam-standard questions and 49 tails than 75 heads and 8?... Entropy implies a large electrical power station is 18.0 %, how much heat transfer ideal energy on! How does the entropy of its surroundings kJ ( b ) how much more likely is 5 and! For students preparing for semester exams, GATE, IES, PSUs NET/SET/JRF. 7.50×10^8J\ ) of food target mathematics at level 2 or above ( see if were... Quickly warm up when exercising. ). ). ). ). ) )... 35.0 % −1.0×10^4J\ ), or does it produce for 100 kJ of transfer. \Displaystyle 18.5kJ\ ) ( b ) how much more likely is 5 heads and tails about twice a.! Of Physics describing thermal ef- Edexcel a level Physics revision resources distance traveled temperatures of \ \displaystyle. Each macrostate ). ). ). ). ). ). ) )! Being considered for use in heating an environment with a hot steam temperature of (! =0.50\ ). ). ). ). ). )..... ( b ) you can realistically toss 10 coins and count the number of ways that could! Output of a spontaneous process in which can not difference necessary to operate a heat engine following ABCDA..., past papers & mark schemes b ) you can realistically toss 10 coins and count the number heads. To consider are the effective hot and cold reservoir temperature for such a refrigerator covered preparing...

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